e Iran

Iran, officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is located in Western Asia. It is bordered by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and Iraq and Turkey to the west. To the south, Iran is bounded by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Its geographical coordinates range from approximately 25°N to 40°N latitude and 44°E to 63°E longitude.



Iran’s climate varies widely due to its diverse terrain, but most of the country experiences a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The northwest has a subtropical climate, while the southern coast along the Persian Gulf is hot and humid. In the central plateau region, temperatures can reach extremes, with hot summers and cold winters.


Iran boasts a rich diversity of wildlife, including species such as Persian leopards, brown bears, wild goats, and gazelles. The country is also home to numerous bird species, reptiles, and insects. However, habitat loss and poaching have threatened many of Iran’s native species.

Longest Rivers:

Iran’s longest river is the Karun, which flows for approximately 950 kilometers (590 miles) through the southwestern part of the country. Other significant rivers include the Dez, the Aras, and the Kārūn.

Highest Mountains:

Iran is home to several mountain ranges, including the Alborz and Zagros Mountains. Mount Damavand, located in the Alborz range, is the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia, standing at 5,610 meters (18,406 feet) above sea level.



Iran has a rich archaeological heritage dating back thousands of years. The earliest known civilization in the region was the Elamite civilization, which flourished in the southwest of present-day Iran around 3,200 BCE. Later, the Persian Empire emerged, with the Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BCE) being the most famous.

Ancient Empires:

The Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great, was one of the largest and most influential empires in history, encompassing much of the ancient world. It was followed by the Parthian and Sassanian Empires, which continued Iran’s legacy as a major regional power.

Islamic Conquest:

In the 7th century CE, Islam spread to Iran, leading to the Islamic conquest of Persia. The country became a center of Islamic civilization, with the Persian language and culture exerting a significant influence on the Islamic world.

Modern Age:

Iran experienced significant political upheaval in the 20th century, including the 1979 Islamic Revolution, which led to the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Since then, Iran has been a key player in regional and international politics, facing both internal challenges and external pressures.


Iran has a population of over 80 million people, making it the most populous country in Western Asia and the second-most populous in the Middle East. The majority of Iranians are ethnic Persians, but the country is also home to significant minority groups, including Azeris, Kurds, Arabs, and Balochs. The official language is Persian (Farsi), and the majority of Iranians are Shia Muslims.

Administrative Divisions

Iran is divided into 31 provinces, each with its own governor and administrative structure. The provinces are further subdivided into counties (shahrestan), districts (bakhsh), and villages (dehestan). The administrative divisions of Iran, along with their respective populations, are as follows:

  1. Tehran Province – Population: Approximately 13 million
  2. Razavi Khorasan Province – Population: 6.5 million
  3. East Azerbaijan Province – Population: 4.8 million
  4. Fars Province – Population: Approximately 4.6 million
  5. Isfahan Province – Population: Approximately 5.1 million
  6. Kerman Province – Population: Approximately 3.2 million
  7. Khuzestan Province – Population: 4.7 million
  8. West Azerbaijan Province – Population: 4 million
  9. Kermanshah Province – Population: 2 million
  10. Mazandaran Province – Population: 3.3 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

Iran’s largest cities by population include:

  1. Tehran
  2. Mashhad
  3. Isfahan
  4. Karaj
  5. Tabriz
  6. Shiraz
  7. Ahvaz
  8. Qom
  9. Kermanshah
  10. Urmia

Education Systems

Education in Iran is free and compulsory for children from ages 6 to 18. The country has a well-established system of primary, secondary, and tertiary education, with numerous public and private universities and colleges. Some of the top universities in Iran include the University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, and Tehran University of Medical Sciences.


Iran has a comprehensive transportation network that includes highways, railways, airports, and ports.

  • Airports: Iran has over 80 airports, with major international airports in Tehran, Mashhad, and Isfahan.
  • Railways: Iran has an extensive railway network that connects major cities and regions across the country, with a total length of over 13,000 kilometers (8,000 miles).
  • Highways: Iran has a well-developed system of highways and roads, with major highways connecting cities and provinces throughout the country.
  • Ports: Iran has several major ports, including Bandar Abbas, Bandar Imam Khomeini, and Bandar Anzali.

Country Facts

  • Population: Over 80 million
  • Capital: Tehran
  • Official Language: Persian (Farsi)
  • Religion: Shia Islam (majority), Sunni Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism
  • Currency: Iranian Rial (IRR)
  • ISO Country Code: IR
  • International Calling Code: +98
  • Top-Level Domain: .ir