Amnesia is known to affect the functioning of memory that causes total or partial loss of memory. However, the amnesia can be transient or permanent, and can get worse as the days go by.
The amnesic disorder or syndrome is characterized by the deterioration or alteration of permanent, stable memory, product of an organic brain disorder in the absence of other perceptual or cognitive senses.
As for its etymological origin, the word amnesia is of Greek origin “amnisia” , formed by the denial prefix “a-” which means “without”, “mneme” that expresses “memory”, the suffix “-sis” that represents “action”, and the suffix “-ia” meaning “quality”.
Amnesia is a theme used in fiction, it is developed or represented in movies or series, as is the case with anterograde amnesia, in the movie “Memento”, dissociative amnesia in the anime series “Elfen Lied”, amnesia lacunar in the movie “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind”.
On the other hand, in the musical world, the amnesia song of the Australian group 5 seconds of summer, written by the suffering of this disease to one of the writers by a blow that suffered in the head.
Causes of amnesia
First, the causes of amnesia are organic or functional.
The organic ones are the result of a brain injury, which can be caused by a brain tumor, cancer treatments, head trauma, migraine, brain infections, oxygen insufficiency to the brain, among others.
The functional ones are due to psychological sequelae, such as: after a traumatic or stressful moment, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, or any other disorder.
There are also other causes that help memory loss such as alcohol, drug, epilepsy, medication abuse, ECT (electroconvulsive therapy), diseases that cause loss or damage to neurons or brain tissue (Parkinson’s disease). ), absence of vitamins or nutrients.
Types of amnesia
Among the most common types of amnesia are the following:
- Anterograde amnesia: the individual does not have the ability to remember new events or events, but will remember the past. Specifically, this type of amnesia is characterized because new events are not transferred to long-term memory, and that is why they are easily forgotten.
- Retrograde amnesia, the person will not remember events or events from their past.
- Lacunar amnesia, a specific event is caused by the event.
- Dissociative amnesia, produced by a memory that causes pain, whether emotional or psychological.
- Posttraumatic amnesia, also called transient, caused by a head injury that did not penetrate the skull, its duration depends on the degree of damage.
- Global amnesia,total memory loss.
- Amnesia of childhood, the individual can not remember moments of his childhood.
- Amnesia of a state of escape or dissociative escape, usually temporary caused by psychological trauma.
- Post-hypnotic amnesia, happens when events during or before hypnosis are forgotten, and cannot be remembered.
- Psychogenic amnesia: result of a psychological cause.
- Progressive amnesia is related to Alzheimer’s disease, and other degenerative dementias.
- Korsakoff syndrome, type of amnesia related to alcoholism.
The treatment of amnesia will depend on the type that the individual suffers. Generally, hypnosis, occupational therapy, psychotherapy, drug use, among others are applied. However, in the case of alcohol-produced amnesia, the prohibition of alcohol and a diet rich in vitamins are ordered.
However, to prevent some cases of amnesia or memory loss, it is advisable to perform multiple activities, sleep approximately 8 hours a day, avoid stressful situations, and lead a healthy life through a balanced diet, and the practice of exercises.